• 30.12.2005 N 25 " " . " ( "... -068-05")

    11


    : | .1 | .2 | .3 | .4 | .5 | .6 | .7 | .8 | .9 | .10 | .11 | .12 | .13 | .14 | .15 |


    7

    ()

    . -

        I  :  )  40  /  NaOH () + 5 /  n0  (40 /
                                                             4
         (  ) + 5 /    );
    ) 30 /     + (0,5 /     1 / HNO ) (30 / 
               2 2 4             2 2              3
     + (0,5 /    1 /  ).

    "", "". . - 10 . - 1 . - 95 .

        II  :  )  6 /     + 1 /  nO  (6 / 
                                     2  3              4
     + 1 /    );  ) 1 /      + 4
                                                           3 6 5 7
    / C  H  O N  +  N H   2 H O    = 5,0 - 5,5  (1 / 
         10 16 8 2     2 4      2
     + 4 /   + 
      = 5,0 - 5,5).

    "", "", "" . . "" - 5 , "" - 10 . - 1 4 . : 95 .

        III  :  50  /  HNO  + 5 /     (50 / 
                                      3          2 2 4
     + 5 /  ).

    . - 95 . - 10 , - 1 .

        IV  :  )  20  /      + NH    = 2,0 (20 /
                                       2 2 4     3
        +       = 2,0); ) 5 /    (5 /
                                                            2 2
     ).
              ""   
      ""         (
                                                         2 2
    ),  5 /.      
       .       -  15 .
     - 1   2 .   -  95 .
        V   :  )  40 /  NaOH ()  + 5 / nO  (40 /
                                                             4
        (  )  +  5  /  );
    )    25 /     N Na   +  5 /       (HNO )     (25  /
                  10 6 8  2  2             3 6 5 7     3
           + 5 /  
    ( ).

    "", "". . - 1,5 . - 10 . - 95 .

        VI   :       5 /   n  + 5 / HNO   +  30 /
                                             4            3
    ( ).

    . - 1 . - 10 . - 95 .

    .

        VII : 50 /    + 10 /      N N  +  0,2 /
                                3  4           10 14 8 2  2
    C H S   +  1  /  -7  (50  /     + 10 /
     7 5 2
            +  0,2  /
     + 1 / ).

    . - 10 . - 1 . - 95 . , IV.

    , , IV VII. I - V , VI VII - , . I - VII "" ( 98%).

    8

    ()

    1. , , . , , . 8.1 - 8.9, . , . 8.1 - 8.9, .

    .

    2. . 8.1 - 8.9:

    , F - ;

    , Fp - ;

    , F - ;

    , F - ;

    - ;

    , Fp - ;

    - .

    3. ( ) 2000.

    4. Fp :

    = 2 ( - 0,2 );

    Fp = 2 (F - 0,2 F).

    5. .

    6. . .

    7. .

    8. - , - .

    1

                   
               081810    = 18,0 ,   = 350
                                                   
                          = 20,0 ,   = 300 
                                        

    -----+--------+-----------------------------------------------------------
    -                                      
     , +------+------+-----T------+------+-----T------+-----T------+
    -         ,   ,  ,   ,   +  +   +  +   + 
    -          ,   ,  F, Fp, ͦ  ,  ,  ,  ,  , 
    ,                      ,  F, ,  F, ,
    DN                                             
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    10  14 x 2  0,02040,04850,40 0,96  0,02620,0500,030 0,56 0,0302
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    15  18 x 2,50,04260,102 0,60 1,43  0,055 0,7240,063 0,82 0,0633
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    25  32 x 3,50,187 0,468 1,37 3,43  0,246 1,71 0,284 1,95 0,302 
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    32  38 x 3,50,253 0,66  1,78 4,64  0,342 2,23 0,40  2,52 0,448 
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    50  57 x 5,50,951 2,44  3,27 8,39  1,26  4,08 1,24  4,63 1,59  
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    65  76 x 7  1,84  4,96  5,03 13,60 2,50  6,29 2,93  7,12 3,35  
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    80  89 x 8  2,93  7,90  6,37 17,20 3,97  7,96 4,66  9,03 5,34  
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    80  108 x 126,12  15,90 8,52 22,10 8,15  10,609,51  12,1010,40 
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    100 133 x 1411,10 29,10 11,6022,40 14,90 14,5517,40 16,5019,10 
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    125 159 x 1719,30 50,40 15,2039,70 25,80 19,0230,10 21,6033,00 
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    225 273 x 2580,40 221,0034,2093,90 109,7042,80129,0048,50149,00
    <*>                                                            
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    300 351 x 36226,00580,0049,90128,00299,0062,50348,0070,70371,00
    <*>                                                            
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    300 377 x 36241,00640,0055,60148,00324,0069,50379,0078,70429,00
    <*>                                                            
    L----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+-------

    --------------------------------

        <*>                  
      = 18,0 ,   = 350 .
                   

    2

                   
               081810    = 14,0 ,   = 335 
                                                   

    -----+--------+-----------------------------------------------------------
    -                                      
     , +------+------+-----T------+------+-----T------+-----T------+
    -         ,   ,  ,  ,    +  +   +  +   + 
    -          ,   ,  F, Fp, ͦ  ,  ,  ,  ,  , 
    ,                      , F,  ,  F, ,
    DN                                             
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    10  14 x 2  0,022 0,05070,3980,917 0,028 0,4970,03180,5630,0307
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    15  18 x 2,50,046 0,106 0,5801,34  0,058 0,7250,06670,8210,0644
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    25  32 x 3,50,207 0,494 1,37 3,27  0,266 1,72 0,306 1,95 0,307 
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    32  38 x 3,50,289 0,712 1,78 4,38  0,377 2,22 0,435 2,52 0,456 
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    50  57 x 5,51,06  2,59  3,27 12,30 1,38  4,08 1,59  4,63 1,62  
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    65  76 x 7  2,11  5,31  5,03 12,70 2,78  6,29 3,22  7,12 3,41  
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    80  89 x 8  3,36  8,47  6,37 16,05 4,42  7,96 5,13  9,03 5,44  
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    100 108 x 9 4,84  12,74 8,52 22,40 6,49  10,657,59  12,108,49  
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    125 133 x 119,43  24,60 11,6030,30 12,60 14,6014,70 16,5016,20 
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    150 159 x 1315,60 41,10 15,2040,00 20,90 19,0024,40 21,6027,20 
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    200 245 x 1955,40 147,0029,1077,20 74,50 36,4087,20 41,2097,30 
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    250 273 x 2077,50 205,0034,2090,60 104,0042,80122,0048,50135,00
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    300 325 x 24135,00355,0044,50117,00180,0055,60211,0063,00232,00
    L----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+-------

    3

                    
                081810    = 11 ,   = 300 ,
                                                  
                          = 9,2 ,   = 290 
                                      

    -----+--------+-----------------------------------------------------------
    -                                      
     , +------+------+-----T------+------+-----T------+-----T------+
    -         ,   ,  ,   ,   +  +   +  +   + 
    -          ,   ,  F, Fp, ͦ  ,  ,  ,  ,  , 
    ,                      , F,  ,  F, ,
    DN                                             
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    10  14 x 2  0,02460,05510,40 0,895 0,03120,50 0,035 0,56 0,0323
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    15  18 x 2,50,05160,116 0,60 1,34  0,06470,72 0,075 0,82 0,0677
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    25  32 x 3,50,238 0,544 1,37 3,13  0,301 1,72 0,343 1,95 0,323 
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    32  38 x 3,50,341 0,792 1,78 4,13  0,434 2,22 0,496 2,52 0,48  
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    50  57 x 4  0,901 2,15  3,27 7,81  1,16  4,08 1,33  4,63 1,34  
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    65  76 x 4,51,65  4,10  5,03 12,50 2,16  6,29 2,50  7,12 2,65  
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    80  89 x 5  2,52  6,31  6,37 15,90 3,31  7,96 3,83  9,03 4,09  
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    100 108 x 7 4,12  6,90  8,52 14,30 5,45  10,656,34  12,106,89  
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    125 133 x 8 7,36  18,90 11,6029,82 9,78  14,5011,38 16,5012,40 
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    150 159 x 9 13,20 33,70 15,2038,80 17,50 19,0020,30 21,6021,90 
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    200 219 x 1230,37 79,40 24,6064,40 40,60 30,7547,50 34,8052,60 
    +----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    300 325 x 1692,00 246,0044,50119,00124,5055,60146,0063,00164,00
    L----+--------+------+------+-----+------+------+-----+------+-----+-------

    4

                
                  081810    = 4,0 ,   = 250 
                                              

    -----+---------+----------------------------------------------------------
    -                                      
     ,  +------+------+-----T-----+------+-----T------+-----T------+
    -          ,   ,  ,  ,   +  +   +  +   + 
    -           ,   ,  F,  Fp,   ,  ,  ,  ,  , 
    ,                    , F,  ,  F, ,
    DN                                             
    +----+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    10  14 x 2   0,02550,05520,63 1,36 0,03160,77 0,03560,8820,0323
    +----+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    15  18 x 2,5 0,05390,117 0,81 1,76 0,06690,99 0,07751,13 0,0677
    +----+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    25  32 x 3,5 0,257 0,504 1,47 2,82 0,32  1,76 0,361 2,02 0,323 
    +----+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    32  38 x 3,5 0,376 0,832 1,71 3,78 0,47  2,09 0,531 2,39 0,48  
    +----+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    50  57 x 4   1,04  2,32  2,56 5,10 1,30  3,14 1,47  3,59 1,34  
    +----+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    65  76 x 4,5 1,49  2,13  3,42 4,88 1,83  4,18 2,06  4,79 2,65  
    +----+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    80  89 x 5   2,29  3,31  4,00 5,78 2,81  4,90 3,17  5,61 4,09  
    +----+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    100 108 x 5  2,73  3,84  4,86 6,83 3,36  5,94 3,78  6,80 5,90  
    +----+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    125 133 x 6  5,19  7,61  5,98 8,79 6,39  7,32 7,19  8,38 8,97  
    +----+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    150 159 x 6,57,80  11,90 7,16 10,959,60  8,75 10,80 10,0012,40 
    +----+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    200 220 x 8  16,80 22,70 9,90 13,4020,70 12,1023,20 13,9033,30 
    +----+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    250 273 x 11 41,60 55,90 12,3016,9051,20 15,0057,60 17,2076,40 
    +----+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+------+-----+------+
    300 325 x 12 58,30 84,00 14,6021,1071,80 17,9080,80 20,50121,00
    L----+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+-----+------+-----+-------

    5

                
                 081810    = 2,5 ,   = 250 C <*>
                                             

        ----------------------------
        <*>         = 2,5  ,    = 250  
                                               
              
    .

    -----+--------+----------------------------------------------------------
    -                                     
     , +------+------+-----T-----+------+-----T------+-----T------+
    -         ,   ,  ,  ,   +  +   +  +   + 
    -          ,   ,  F,  Fp,   ,  ,  , ,   , 
    ,                   , F,  , F,  ,

    : | .1 | .2 | .3 | .4 | .5 | .6 | .7 | .8 | .9 | .10 | .11 | .12 | .13 | .14 | .15 |


 

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